workers Grodno province in 1905-1907
the emergence of trade unionism
in the XX Century entered into a complex economic and political environment.
Economic recovery late XIX century gave way to a prolonged economic crisis of
1900-1903. The defeat of the autocracy in the war with Japan had further aggravated the situation
in the country. Grodno province experiencing the same negative processes, but with greater
class of Grodno province was the most numerous among all 5 of Belarusian
provinces. At the 417 enterprises were under the supervision of factory
inspection, were employed 15496 workers [9, s.651]. Edge of the proletariat, as
well as the entire working class of Russia, subjected to ruthless exploitation,
was politically no rights. There are many enterprises were closed and switched
to a shorter working day during the economic crisis.
This led to an
increase in unemployment, while wages have declined by more than half. All this
to the rise of the labor movement.
Thus, in the
period 1901-1904 he was a revolutionary situation. in the struggle to improve
the economic situation of the workers participated in 9 cities and towns in
Grodno Region: Grodno, Volkovysk, Slonim, Smorgon, Oshmyan, Svisloch, Skidel,
Lakes. It was organized 64 strikes, and the total number of strikers more than
5 thousand people.
struggle in the same period reached 11 cities and towns. Political strikes were
held in Grodno (3), Smorgon (3), Slonim (2), Vaukavysk, Ashmyany, Ruzhany,
Indura (one). Total province took place on 12 strikes, 11 demonstrations and 98
gatherings and demonstrations. The number of strikers has reached 11.5 thousand
workers, demonstrators 4,2 thousand, participants gatherings and
demonstrations 15,1 thousand
Grodno province were in the vanguard of the liberation movement in Belarus [7, l.65-69, 76, 1, p.32].
of the revolution were the events of 9 January 1905. Results of «Bloody
Sunday» in St. Petersburg stirred up the whole of Russia. The strikes, street demonstrations and rallies of protest swept across the country. The Belarusian
provinces in January of 20 thousand workers were on strike (in Grodno 1200). In Grodno, Bialystok, Brest-Litovsk, pots, Skidel Big Berestovitsa,
Volkovysk, Slonim, and other cities and towns province stopped the factories, shops,
closed shops, shops.
the strike of solidarity with the St. Petersburg workers in the town of Grodno
County Krynki 17-19 January 1905 it was prepared by the organization of the
Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania and the
Social-Democratic Committee of the Bund. Strikers all 46 tanneries town. Before
working disarmed all the local authorities, captured by administrative
agencies, the police broke up and destroyed all the affairs of the parish
councils and portraits of the king in all institutions, cut down telephone
poles through Volkovysk, Sokolki, Bialystok, Grodno. Many of the strikers were
armed with revolvers. Demonstrators (more than 2 thousand people) marched
through the town singing revolutionary songs and slogans: «Down with the autocracy
government!«, »Long live the people’s revolution,« »Give us
8-hour working day». The rebels drove the whole day all borough. By order
of the Governor in Krynki were introduced troops, who with great difficulty,
suppressed the action of the workers [6, l.11-12; 3, s.459].
The summer and
during the October All-Russia political strike in the Grodno province recorded
39 of the workers and peasants. In response to a mutiny on the Battleship
Potemkin «were the soldiers of individual parts of Grodno and
Brest-Litovsk garrisons. Under the pressure of revolutionary events of the autocracy
government was forced to make some concessions. Published October 17, 1905
royal manifesto proclaimed the freedom of speech, assembly, and association and
the inviolability of person, the convening of the Duma with legislative powers.
For the most part recorded in the manifest of the rights and freedoms were
declarative in nature and by the autocracy government was an attempt to divert
the workers from revolutionary action.
workers the same period of the beginning of the revolution became the stage of
their political «maturity» and the tsar’s manifesto on Oct. 17, 1905
prompted the establishment of organizations that defend their rights and
interests trade unions.
reports, in Prinemanskogo region already in 1898 appeared union tanners. It
unites workers Bialystok and Krynok and tanners Smorgon and Oshmyan (located at
that time within the province of Vilna). Predecessors of the trade unions is
different factory, shop assembly, commissions, strike fund. Grodno province
that had emerged in the XIX-XX centuries, various social welfare and
professional societies. For example, Bialystok professional society welfare
craft workers emerged in the late XIX century and numbered in its ranks about
300 people [5, l.225]. These societies not only have provided material
assistance to the sick and temporarily not working members of society, but also
put forward requirements on employers to improve working conditions, higher
The autumn for
the next wave of revolutionary upsurge, in Belarus and Grodno province did the
first mass labor organizations, who have organized the workers. One of the
first in the Grodno region, in October 1905 during the October general strike,
political organization formed the All-Russia Union Railway Station Vaŭkavysk-central
[4, l.37, 129 ob., 8, p.16].
revolutionary movement in the country raised the question of armed
insurrection. It began in Moscow on December 9, 1905. But in spite of the
heroism and tenacity of the workers by 18 December was brutally suppressed. In Belarus, the Bolsheviks failed to organize an armed uprising. But political strikes and
demonstrations were held in many Belarusian towns and villages.
of the All-Russia railway union and trade union committees of 29 railways have
announced a December 7, 1905 All-Russia strike. One of the first responded to
this call the railway station Vaŭkavysk-Central. It was set up a strike
committee, headed by the engineer of Communications, Chief of the 3rd section
of service road Polesskii railways, a member of the All-Russia Union of
Railwaymen Yu Yu Vishnevsky At many key points of the railway has established
local committees and offices. During the events of December, they seized the
administrative power in some places the line and made orders in addition to the
local railway authorities. Were suspended commercial office, which has not
promulgated or shipment. All material values at the station guarded clothes
watchmen appointed by the Committee. At some stations Polessian railroad trains
were delayed, obstructed the administration of postal goods.
offices spread among the workers and employees, the public anti-government
leaflets, flyers, organizing rallies and strikes to demand from the Public
Roads Administration an 8-hour workday, higher wages, have called for the
struggle to overthrow the existing social order.
lasted until December 14, 1905. She was crushed by military force. December 20
leadership of the strike committee, as well as active participants in the
strike: Mogul’skii, Krushevsky, Tikhonov, Romanovsky, shovels, Sidorsky,
Tarchevsky and Shatinsky were arrested and brought to trial [9, s.390-391, 4, l.33, 288].
In Grodno, under the leadership of the Vilnius Group RSDLP, the Military Revolutionary
Committee, the organization of the General Jewish Labor Union Bund from 12 to
16 December 1905 there was a city-wide political strike. At the same time in
the city of 800 miners were on strike, all educational institutions. Strikes,
demonstrations were held in Brest-Litovsk, Bialystok, villages Opole,
Lyadovichi, youngest Kobrin district and other locations [1, p.34, 9, s.414-416
In the span of
the strike movement Grodno region was in the vanguard of Belarusian provinces.
Of the 417 plants that were under the supervision of factory inspection, 270
were covered by the strikes, which involved 79.9 per cent of the workers. It
was the highest among Belarusian provinces. In 1905, in Grodno province
occurred on 30 strikes, 52 demonstrations, 126 rallies and demonstrations [9,
s.651; 1, p.30-34].
defeat of the December armed uprising in Moscow under the pressure of imperial
repression revolution receded. But in the last year of a revolutionary strike
movement in Grodno region was covered by 28 companies. Grodno April 8 marked
strikes workshops Kaufaksa J., E. Stein, G. Velina, bakeries Karlen. April 9
was a strike of workers tailor shop I. Lapidus (7 workers). But the
performances are mostly had an economic focus.
political strikes were held in the Grodno region to celebrate the May 1, 1907
They were organized in Zelve, Iŭie, Lida, Smorgon, Grodno. November 24
took strike of workers provincial printing. December 4 supported them working
seven private printers. December 9 tobacco factory workers went on strike
Shereshevsky (125 people), ironworks Fajngold (30), syrup plant (8 people), a
candy factory (30 people), four printers (111 people), «Neman»
bookbinding factory (111) 17, sartorius (65), and other strikes were organized
to express sympathy to the members of the Social Democratic faction in the
State Duma of the 2-nd
convocation, on trial [2, p.74].
retreat of the revolution, the autocracy government intensified repression
against workers and their organizations. Until the end of 1908 were defeated,
many local organizations the All-Russia Railway Union in Grodno region.
Surviving the trade union organizations had gone deep underground, or
temporarily turned its activities. Hundreds of workers, trade unionists,
members of the Social-democratic direction, the General Jewish Labor Union Bund
Prinemanskogo region for their active participation in the events of 1905-1906
years of the revolution were fired, jailed and fortresses, sentenced to long
terms of exile in Siberia and the Far North, suffered the death penalty.
large scale strikes of workers, the revolution was defeated. However, active
participation in the revolution of workers acquire the Grodno region
contributed their expertise to fight for their rights and freedom, solidarity
with workers in other regions of the empire Russia, working with all sectors of
society, organizations and parties.