Pylyp Orlyk and his constitution

Дата: 12.01.2016




of History of Ukraine


Orlyk and his Constitution»

first-year student

group № 2

Vasyl Palyadnik

Scientific Advisor

associate professor Isakova N. P.

– 2009


I. Biography

II. Family

III. Constitution



I. Biography

Pylyp Orlyk was
born in the village of Kosuta, Ashmyany county, (Vileyka district of modern day
Belarus), in a family of Czech origin.  [1]

Orlyk first
studied at the Jesuit college in Vilnius and until 1694 at Kyiv Mohyla Academy.
In 1698 he was appointed secretary of the consistory of Kyiv metropolia. In
1699 he became a senior member of Hetman Ivan Mazepa’s General Military
Chancellery and 1706 was appointed general chancellor and at that position he
was Mazepa«s closest aide to, facilitated Mazepa»s secret correspondence with
the Poles and Swedes, and assisted Mazepa in his efforts to form an
anti-Russian coalition.

II. Family

Pylyp Orlyk
married Hanna Hertsyk in the mid 1690s. She was a daughter of the colonel Pavlo
Semenovych Hertsyk (a close ally of Mazepa) of the Poltava regiment. Pylyp and Hanna had eight
children. They were:  [5]  [6]

Anastasiya. In
1723 she married the Swedish nobleman and officer Johan Stenflycht (1681-1758).
They had two sons: Carl Gustaf (b.1724) who served as a captain in the French
regiment Royal Pologne and Filip (b.1726) who died as a child. Anastasiya
died in 1728.

Hryhor. He was
born in 1702 in Baturyn, Ukraine. His godfather was Hetman Ivan Mazepa. He
studied at Lund University 1717-1718. After leaving Sweden in 1720 he first
lived with his mother in Kraków, Poland. He later became a Lieutenant
General in France where he called himself comte d’Orlik. Although he
kept the contact with Sweden and in 1742 he also visited Stockholm. In 1747 he
married a French noblemwoman, but they didn’t have any children. He was killed
in 1759 at the Battle of Minden in Germany where he also is buried.

Mykhailo. He
was born in 1704 in Baturyn, Ukraine. His godfather was Hetman Ivan Mazepa.

Varvara. She
was born in Baturyn, Ukraine. Her godfather was Hetman Ivan Mazepa.

Yakiv. He was
born 1711 in Bender, Ottoman Empire. His godfather was king Charles XII of

Marta. She was
born 1713 in Bender, Ottoman Empire. Her godfather was king Stanisław
Leszczyński of Poland.

Maryna. She was
born 1715 in Alteführ, Rügen, Swedish Pomerania. Her godmother was
king Charles XII’s sister Ulrika Eleonora and king Stanisław
Leszczyński of Poland.

Kateryna. She
was born on November 5, 1718 in Kristianstad, Skåne, Sweden and probably
died already in 1719.

III. Constitution

After Mazepa’s
death when a question of a choice of the new hetman in contrast to Ivan
Skoropadsky, put in Ukraine by Peter the I, the choice had fallen to P. Orlyk,
which have selected the hetman on April, 5th, 1710. In a day of elections the
state Constitution, which was called a «Pacts and the Constitution of the
rights and liberties of the Zaporizhyan Army» has been proclaimed. Being
till the end of a life in emigration, Phillip Orlik has concluded allied
contracts with Sweden (1710), the Crimean khan (1711, 1712), entered
negotiations with Turkey, trying to incline these countries to war with the
Moscow state for the purpose of clearing of Ukraine. In 1711 together with
koshevy Konstantin Gordienko has carried out a military campaign of
Zaporozhians and allied Tatar armies to Right-bank Ukraine, has received White
Church, has reached to Fastivbut through change of Tatars has receded to
Bendery. In the summer of 1711 Turks, Tatars together with a Polish-Ukrainian
army have inflicted defeat of the Russian army over the Prut. Since 1914 after
Orlyk has not realised the plans of clearing of Ukraine, he together with
Gertsyk, Voynarovsky and Mirovich moves to Sweden, in 1720 — to Austria, later
— to Czechia. Since 1722 to 1734 he lives in Greece in the city of Saloniki. In
1740 war between Turkey and Russia to which Phillip Orlik assigns to hope has
begun. But after the conclusion between both countries of Bilogorodsky peace his
hopes were not justified. Phillip Orlik has died in May, 24th, 1742 in Jassy,

Pylyp Orlyk,
high-level educated, with thin national-political mind, the ardent both
conscious patriot and the fighter for independent Ukraine, was allocated in the
then environment Ukrainian Cossack starshyny. Even historians XIX century, in
particular Nightingales, Kluchevsky, and Kostomarov, despite an uncooperative
altitude to the Ukrainian emancipating ideas, should notice its sincerity and
cleanliness of gaugings. Orlyk represented entirely new type of the patriot and
the intellectual which in improbably heavy conditions of emigration did not
leave thought on restoration of independence of the Ukrainian state. The most
active conductor of the Mazepa’s ideas, he has devoted the whole life to
creation of the West European coalition which would help to release Ukraine. The
exile, the hetman-emigrant, with small group of adherents — A. Vojnarovskim,
colonel D. Gorlenkom, the general clerk І. Мaxymavych, general judge K. Dolgopolym, general osaulamy G. Gertsikom
and F. Mirovichem — did a mad attempts to persuade the government of Sweden,
Germany, Poland, France, Turkey on the general struggle against the tsar. He
tried to take advantage of any possibility to interest the European states in
the decision of destiny of Ukraine. Anybody is more for Pylyp Orlyk has not
made at that time if only the Ukrainian question became a particle of the
all-European policy of first half ХVIII century.

«Pacts and
the Constitution of the rights and liberties of the Army Zaporozhye», or
so-called «Pylyp Orlyk’s Constitution» which it has been proclaimed in
day of its elections by the hetman, is the unique document which researchers
not unreasonably name one of the first-ever democratic constitutions. Its main
idea — full independence of Ukraine of Poland and Russia, and border with
Poland were defined on the river Sluch, as for B. Khmelnitskiy. Except
definition of territory of the Ukrainian state, this document defined the
rights of all levels of population of Ukraine, independent position Zaporozhye
from Poland and Russia. The hetman was appointed the head of the state, near to
it should operate General syarshyna which limited to a certain measure the
power of the hetman and regulated its relations with the people. Except the
foreman to Rada representatives from each regiment should enter. The state
treasure separated from hetman, strictly certain separate earths and means were
allocated for deduction of the hetman. Colonels and сотники should be selected democratic — free voices of Cossacks or hundreds.
The hetman was obliged to watch fair distribution and collecting of the state
taxes which were paid Cossack sub-assistents, peasants, petty bourgeoises,
merchant class.

constitution of Ukraine on its acceptance recognised at once the governments of
Sweden and Turkey. It and amazes today with the urgency and high legal level. Scientists
and politicians nowadays not without the bases consider, that, having embodied
ideas of its inspirer, hetman Ivan Mazepa, it as the state certificate of a
republican direction for 80 years has outstripped ideas of the French

After Orlyk’s
death there was a literary inheritance in the form of correspondence, versatile
persons, speeches, panegyrics and «Діаріуша the
traveller», that is a diary. They testify, that Phillip Orlik was rather
educated person and had uncommon publicistic abilities. Almost its writing
differs extreme artistry, baroque eloquence, free possession in several
languages, the frequent reference to historical examples and mythology. Such,
for example, his letters to Charles XII, запорожцев and
hetman Ivan Skoropadskogo in which it describes misadventures of the people
during the Tatar attacks.

correspondences Latin, French, Polish and then Ukrainian, or Russian, languages
are separate page of Orlyk’s inheritance. Between persons with whom the hetman
consisted in correspondence, there were known people, in particular count
Flem_ng, the first minister of the Polish king of August II, golshynsky the
prince, English ambasador, the Jerusalem patriarch, the Grand Visier, the
Crimean khan, the hetman the Skoropadsky, Swedish king, the Zaporozhye Cossacks
on the Turkish earths, etc. The constitution of 1710 — outstanding Ukrainian
socially-polythic document in which have found bright display then ideals of
the Ukrainian nation. In it contradictions between the European tradition and
the newest ideals were reflected by then; contradictions which on the beginning
of XVIII item tore apart Europe on irreconcilable enemy camp and with which
there lived by then Ukraine. Because through its territory there passed
invisible border between aspiration of our ancestors to freedom. Authors of the
Constitution, P. Orlik and Cossack the foreman, aspired to connect fragments of
the past in a single whole and to outline model of such society which would
contain the main achievements of the nations. The stated ideas are a
consequence almost of a millenium of political development of Ukraine, the
certificate of high level of consciousness of the nations, level of its
political culture and creative potential. Certainly, the form in which it is
all it is stated, not позбавлна lacks (is more exact
than features in due time), but same the first Ukrainian constitution.

Constitution is made of the introduction (preamble) and articles which are
united in 16 sections. Already in an introductory part by style means of
baroque it is schematically stated «History of the Army of the Zaporozhye
and all Russian people» which reaches times of establishment of
predecessor Getmanshchiny — the Ktivan Rus, and also the reasons that Ukraine
breaks off with Мoskovshchyna speak and passes under
the Swedish patronage. The basic point of the Constitution — declaration of
independence of Ukraine from Poland and Moscow. Consolidation of principles of
activity of public authorities, General council convocation three times a year
was the second point. The constitution limited the rights of the hetman in
advantage starshinska aristocracy and precisely established, what profits the
hetman which power was limited by Cossack parliament can use, doing from
Ukraine the constitutional state. It, it is possible to tell, was a victory
starshynska aristocracy over hetman absolute. On O. Ogloblina’s expression, the
Constitution became «the second defeat … hetman Mazepa after the Poltava
accident which has struck the big blow of the hetman power».

By the
important feature which distinguished it from usual hetman articles and did
similar to late European constitutions, there was that it was made not between
the hetman and the monarch (a protector of the Ukrainian state), and between
the hetman and the Cossacks which spoke on behalf of persons of all Ukrainian
people. However a word «constitution», that used in the name, yet had
no such value as today, and, so, is an error to consider this document as the
constitution in modern understanding.

Pylyp Orlik’s
constitution contained many interesting and progressive ideas, was up to
standard of the best achievements of then legal thought. It considerably
advances time, and also testifies about deep democratic principles department
of Pylyp Orlyk and to he was what serious figure.

constitution is made with the uttermost confidence of fast homecoming where it
will have a validity for all Ukraine. Therefore at the moment of its
conclusion, it represented the uttermost reality, instead of simply theoretical
project which became later when returning to Ukraine of its composers became
impossible. The Constitution and has not got real force, that is why there was
in history as an original legal instruction, an original legal platform «Mazepa’s
movements» and, the most important thing, as one of the first
constitutional certificates in history of Europe.

character last years the problem of the Ukrainian language has got. This
sharpness has been caused by erroneous dogmatic approaches to development of
national languages throughout last 70th years. Revival national-speaking
processes and national consciousness is promoted by historical language sources
which Phillip Orlika’s Constitution — an original language instruction of the
Ukrainian people concerns. Monuments collapse eventually, people die, and
written sources remain, supplemented. And from them we scoop our knows, they
remind us of ours roots.

Charles Х
ІІ has confirmed the approved constitution and became the
guarantor of independence of Ukraine.

Having got a
hetman mace, Phillip Orlik of infections undertook continuations of business of
the predecessor — Ivan Mazepa. After the Battle of Poltava in 1709, he escaped
together with Hetman Ivan Mazepa and king Charles XII of Sweden Bender in the Principality
of Moldavia, where Mazepa soon died. Pylyp
Orlyk was then chosen as a Hetman in exile by the cossacks and the Swedish king
Charles XII. While in Bender Orlyk wrote one of the first state constitutions
in Europe. This Constitution of Pylyp
Orlyk was confirmed by Charles XII and it also names him as the protector of
Ukraine. Orlyk represented entirely new type of the patriot and the
intellectual which in improbably heavy conditions of emigration did not leave
thought on restoration of independence of the Ukrainian state. The most active
conductor ideas, he has devoted the whole life to creation of the West European
coalition which would help to release Ukraine. The exile, the hetman-emigrant,
with small group of adherents — A. Vojnarovsky.

Between 1711
and 1714, together with Crimean Tatars and small groups of Cossacks, Orlyk
carried out unsuccessful raids into Right-bank Ukraine. Afterwards, Pylyp Orlyk now together with
several other cossacks followed the Swedish king Charles XII to Sweden via Vienna
and Stralsund. Orlyk with his wife Hanna Hertsyk and six children arrived in Ystad,
Sweden on the new year’s day of 1716. They now lived in the city of Kristianstad
for some years. Orlyk and his family left Stockholm in 1720 but as late as 1747
his widow and children received financial support from the Parliament of Sweden.
From Sweden Orlyk first went to Hamburg, Hannover, Prague, Wrocław and Kraków,
where he left his family to stay in a monastery. Orlyk went on to France and in
1722 he arrived in Iaşi in Ottoman Turkey in order to organize an alliance
against Russian Empire. From there he went on to Thessaloniki and from the mid
1730s he is known to have lived in Budjak. He died 1742.


Pylyp Orlyk and his constitution

After years
fighting against the Muscovite tsars, Orlyk fled first to Sweden, and then
passed through central Europe to the relative safety of the Ottoman lands. On 2 November 1722…
the fifty-year-old Orlyk was ordered by the Porte to Salonica. There this
cultivated and warm-hearted man spent no less than twelve years in exile,
watching the twists and turns of European politics from the sidelines while his
impoverished wife remained in Cracow and his eight children were dispersed
throughout Europe. Only in March 1734 was he released, thanks to French
intervention, and allowed to move north; still trying to organize an uprising
in the Ukraine, he died in poverty nine years later. Orlyk’s misfortune has
proved to be the historian’s gain, for from the day of his arrival he kept a
diary which offers a unique insight into the eighteenth-century city… His
urgent scrawl gives access not only to his voluminous political correspondence,
most of which — in Latin, French, Polish and Ukrainian — was duly copied into
his journals, but also to the rigours of daily life in his place of exile. The
misbehaviour of his loutish servants, the local fare, his bag after a day’s
shooting in the plains, stories told him by tailors, interpreters and
bodyguards enliven its pages. Jesuits, consuls, doctors, spies and the Turkish
judges and governors who ran the city all encountered the busy exile. Most of
the time, he lived well, considering his predicament…


Doroshenko D. The essay os history of Ukraine by
2 b. — K.: Globus, 1991, b.2;

Subtelny O. Ukraine: history — K/: Lybid, 1993;

The bases of state and
rights of Ukraine. — K., 1993;

The first Constitution of Ukraine by hetman
Pylyp Orlyk.1710. — K.: Veselka, 1994.;

Pylyp Orlyk / Hetman-emigrant… K., 1991.


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